Rare Rheumatology News

Disease Profile


Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)



Musculoskeletal Diseases


Coccygodynia is a rare condition in that causes pain in and around the coccyx (tailbone). Although various causes have been described for the condition, the more common causes are direct falls and injury. [1]


The classic symptom is pain when pressure is applied to the tailbone, such as when sitting on a hard chair. Symptoms usually improve with relief of pressure when standing or walking [2].

Other symptoms include [2]:

  • Immediate and severe pain when moving from sitting to standing
  • Pain during bowel movements
  • Pain during sex
  • Deep ache in the region of the tailbone
  • Cause

    A number of different causes have been associated with coccygodynia. However, the most common cause is a direct fall and injury to the area of the sacrum and coccyx. These types of injuries can occur from various activities, examples include a kick, an injury on a trampoline when one hits the bar or springs that surround the trampoline jumping pad, or from falling from a horse or skis. Another common cause, exclusive to women, is childbirth. The other most common cause of the condition is pregnancy. During the last three months of pregnancy, certain hormones are released in the women's body causing the area between the sacrum and the coccyx to soften and become more mobile. The increased mobility may result in permanent stretching and change and causing inflammation of the tissues surrounding the coccyx. In about one third of all cases of coccygodynia, the cause is unknown. Other less common causes include nerve damage, cysts such as Tarlov cysts, obesity, and a bursitis like condition that can arise in slim patients who have little buttocks fat padding.[1]


    Treatment for coccygodynia generally falls into conservative management or surgical intervention categories. The conservative approach typically includes hot sitz baths, NSAIDs, stool softeners, and/or the use of a donut-shaped pillow or gel cushion to descrease pressure and irritation of the coccyx. If these treatment options fails, glucocorticoid injections may be used in an attempt to reduce the pain. Massage therapy has also been used to help decrease pain, but most studies have shown that the relief experienced from this form of therapy is temporary. The more aggressive and rare approach involves either partial or complete removal of the coccyx (coccygectomy). [1][3]


    Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

    Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    In-Depth Information

    • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
    • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Coccygodynia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

    Selected Full-Text Journal Articles


    1. Lyons MJ. eMedicine. February 10, 2006; https://www.emedicine.com/orthoped/topic383.htm. Accessed 4/7/2008.
    2. Coccydynia. Cleveland Clinic Center for Consumer Health Information. https://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/4200/4241.asp?index=10436. Accessed 4/7/2008.
    3. Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ. Unexplained Anal Pain . Feldman: Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 8th ed. . Philadelphia: Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier; 2006;

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