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Disease Profile

Maxillonasal dysplasia, Binder type

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Binder syndrome


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases; Mouth Diseases


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 1248

Binder syndrome is a rare developmental anomaly, affecting primarily the anterior part of the maxilla and nasal complex.

Binder syndrome occurs in less than one birth in 10,000 but is probably underdiagnosed.

Clinical description
Affected individuals typically have an unusually flat, underdeveloped midface (midfacial hypoplasia), with an abnormally short nose and flat nasal bridge, underdeveloped upper jaw, relatively protruding lower jaw and/or a 'reverse overbite'' (or class III malocclusion). Hypoplasia of distal phalanges of fingers was reported in some cases.

The etiology and pathogenesis of Binder syndrome remains uncertain.

Differential diagnosis
Phenocopies of Binder syndrome have been described in children exposed in utero to phenytoin or to vitamin K deficiency, being induced either by drug (anticoagulants) or by biliary lithiasis. Some authors consider Binder syndrome as an allelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata. Others suggest that Binder type maxillonasal dysplasia does not represent a distinct disease entity or syndrome, but rather is a nonspecific abnormality of the nasomaxillary regions.

Antenatal diagnosis
Prenatal diagnosis by two and three-dimensional ultrasound is possible (visualization of flat profile; bone hypoplasia) from 20-22 weeks of gestation.

Genetic counseling
Most reported cases were sporadic. A few cases of recurrence in pedigrees could be explained by either autosomal recessive or dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance or by multifactorial etiology.

Management and treatment
Since the degree of malformation in Binder syndrome varies significantly, surgical correction (orthodontic, plastic surgery) needs to be tailored individually.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Depressed nasal bridge
Depressed bridge of nose
Flat bridge of nose
Flat nasal bridge
Flat, nasal bridge
Flattened nasal bridge
Low nasal bridge
Low nasal root

[ more ]

Depressed nasal ridge
Flat nose
Recessed nasal ridge

[ more ]

Flat face
Flat facial shape
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
Decreased size of maxilla
Decreased size of upper jaw
Maxillary deficiency
Maxillary retrusion
Small maxilla
Small upper jaw
Small upper jaw bones
Upper jaw deficiency
Upper jaw retrusion

[ more ]

Low levels of vitamin K
Midface retrusion
Decreased size of midface
Midface deficiency
Underdevelopment of midface

[ more ]

Short columella
Short nose
Decreased length of nose
Shortened nose

[ more ]

30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abnormality of the nares
Abnormality of the nostrils
Cleft palate
Cleft roof of mouth
Decreased width of tooth
Open bite
Absence of overlap of upper and lower teeth
Open bite between upper and lower teeth

[ more ]

Patchy distortion of vertebrae
Reduced number of teeth
Decreased tooth count
Short distal phalanx of finger
Short outermost finger bone
Striae distensae
Stretch marks
Vertebral clefting
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the distal phalanges of the toes
Absent/small outermost bones of toe
Absent/underdeveloped outermost bones of toe

[ more ]

Mandibular prognathia
Big lower jaw
Increased projection of lower jaw
Increased size of lower jaw
Large lower jaw
Prominent chin
Prominent lower jaw

[ more ]

Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Dental malocclusion
Bad bite
Malalignment of upper and lower dental arches
Misalignment of upper and lower dental arches

[ more ]

Large earlobe
Fleshy earlobe
Fleshy earlobes
Prominent ear lobes
prominent ear lobules

[ more ]


Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Maxillonasal dysplasia, Binder type. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.