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Disease Profile

Mycobacterium Malmoense

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

M. Malmoense; Mycobacterium Malmoense infection


Bacterial infections


Mycobacterium malmoense (M. malmoense) is a bacterium naturally found in the environment, such as in wet soil, house dust, water, dairy products, domestic and wild animals, food, and human waste.[1][2] M. malmoense infections most often occur in adults with lung disease, and manifests as a lung infection.[3][4] Skin and tissue infections with M. malmoense have also been described.[1] In young children, M. Malmoense may cause an infection of lymphnodes in the neck (i.e., cervical lymphadenitis).[1][4]


Many cases of M. malmoense infection cause no symptoms, and as a result go unrecognized.[3] M. malmoense infections in adults often present as lung infections with or without fever. In children, M. malmoense infections can present as a single sided, non-tender, enlarging, neck mass. The mass may be violet in color and often does not respond to conventional antibiotic therapy.[4] M. malmoense infection can also cause skin lesions or abscesses.[4]


M. Malmoense infection may be acquired by breathing in or ingesting the bacteria, or through trauma, such as an injury or surgical incision.[2] People who have suppressed immune systems are at an increased risk for developing signs and symptoms from these infections.[2]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Mycobacterium Malmoense. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


  1. Scheinfeld NS. Atypical mycobacterial diseases. MedScape. Feb 11, 2013; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1105570-overview. Accessed 9/5/2013.
  2. Bhambri S, Bhambri A, Del Rosso JQ. Atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infections. Dermatol Clin. 2009 Jan;27(1):63-73; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18984369. Accessed 9/5/2013.
  3. Claesson G et al.,. Nerve dysfunction following surgical treatment of cervical non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children. Acta pædiatrica. 2011;100(2):299-302 ;
  4. El-Maaytah M, Shah P, Jerjes W, Upile T, Ayliffe P. Cervical lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium malmoense. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Jul;68(7):1690-4. ; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20417008. Accessed 9/5/2013.

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