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Disease Profile

Osteopetrosis autosomal dominant type 2

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Childhood

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ICD-10

Q78.2

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

OPTA2; Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type 2; Albers-Schönberg osteopetrosis

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Eye diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases

Summary

Osteopetrosis refers to a group of rare, inherited skeletal disorders characterized by increased bone density and abnormal bone growth.[1][2] Symptoms and severity can vary greatly, ranging from neonatal onset with life-threatening complications (such as bone marrow failure) to the incidental finding of osteopetrosis on X-ray. Depending on severity and age of onset, features may include fractures, short stature, compressive neuropathies (pressure on the nerves), hypocalcemia with attendant tetanic seizures, and life-threatening pancytopenia. In rare cases, there may be neurological impairment or involvement of other body systems.[1] Osteopetrosis may be caused by mutations in at least 10 genes. Inheritance can be autosomal recessiveautosomal dominant, or X-linked recessive with the most severe forms being autosomal recessive. Management depends on the specific symptoms and severity and may include vitamin D supplements, various medications, and/or surgery. Adult osteopetrosis requires no treatment by itself, but complications may require intervention.[3]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Abnormality of epiphysis morphology
Abnormal shape of end part of bone
0005930
Abnormality of the metacarpal bones
Abnormality of the long bone of hand
0001163
Abnormality of the metaphysis
Abnormality of the wide portion of a long bone
0000944
Avascular necrosis
Death of bone due to decreased blood supply
0010885
Bone pain
0002653
Facial palsy
Bell's palsy
0010628
Frontal bossing
0002007
Generalized osteosclerosis
0005789
Joint dislocation
Joint dislocations
Recurrent joint dislocations

[ more ]

0001373
Macrocephaly
Increased size of skull
Large head
Large head circumference

[ more ]

0000256
Mandibular osteomyelitis
Lower jaw bone infection
0007626
Osteoarthritis
Degenerative joint disease
0002758
Recurrent fractures
Increased fracture rate
Increased fractures
Multiple fractures
Multiple spontaneous fractures
Varying degree of multiple fractures

[ more ]

0002757
Short distal phalanx of finger
Short outermost finger bone
0009882
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Anemia
Low number of red blood cells or hemoglobin
0001903
Genu valgum
Knock knees
0002857
Optic atrophy
0000648
Short stature
Decreased body height
Small stature

[ more ]

0004322
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal leukocyte morphology
0001881
Blindness
0000618
Bone marrow hypocellularity
Bone marrow failure
0005528
Carious teeth
Dental cavities
Tooth cavities
Tooth decay

[ more ]

0000670
Hearing impairment
Deafness
Hearing defect

[ more ]

0000365
Hydrocephalus
Too much cerebrospinal fluid in the brain
0000238
Hypocalcemia
Low blood calcium levels
0002901
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Abnormality of pelvic girdle bone morphology
Abnormal shape of pelvic girdle bone
0002644
Abnormality of the vertebral endplates
0005106
Autosomal dominant inheritance
0000006
Elevated serum acid phosphatase
Acid phosphatase elevated
0003148
Facial paralysis
0007209
Fractures of the long bones
0003084
Hip osteoarthritis
0008843
Juvenile onset
Signs and symptoms begin before 15 years of age
0003621
Osteopetrosis
Harder, denser, fracture-prone bones
0011002
Visual loss
Loss of vision
Vision loss

[ more ]

0000572

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

Treatment

FDA-Approved Treatments

The medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

In-Depth Information

  • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • MeSH® (Medical Subject Headings) is a terminology tool used by the National Library of Medicine. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Osteopetrosis autosomal dominant type 2. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Zornitza Stark and Ravi Savarirayan. Osteopetrosis. Orphanet. October, 2012; https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=en&Expert=2781.
  2. David D. Sherry Frank Pessler. Osteopetroses. Merck Manual. 2016; https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/children-s-health-issues/bone-disorders-in-children/osteopetroses.
  3. Robert Blank. Osteopetrosis. Medscape Reference. December 17, 2014; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/123968-overview.