Rare Rheumatology News

Disease Profile

Phocomelia

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

-

ICD-10

Q71.1

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Summary

Phocomelia is a rare birth defect that can affect the upper and/or lower limbs. In people with this condition, the bones of the affected limb are either missing or underdeveloped. The limb is, therefore, extremely shortened and in severe cases, the hand or foot may be attached directly to the trunk. The involvement of the condition ranges from a single limb to both upper and lower limbs. In many cases, the underlying cause of phocomelia is poorly understood. It can be inherited as part of a genetic syndrome. Phocomelia can also be caused by maternal exposure to certain drugs (such as thalidomide) during pregnancy. There is no specific treatment for phocomelia. However, if it is part of a genetic syndrome, surgical intervention may be recommended for associated malformations.[1][2]

Treatment

The resources below provide information about treatment options for this condition. If you have questions about which treatment is right for you, talk to your healthcare professional.

Management Guidelines

  • Project OrphanAnesthesia is a project whose aim is to create peer-reviewed, readily accessible guidelines for patients with rare diseases and for the anesthesiologists caring for them. The project is a collaborative effort of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Orphanet, the European Society of Pediatric Anesthesia, anesthetists and rare disease experts with the aim to contribute to patient safety.

References

  1. Mukhtar K, Matuszczak M, and Bermejo-Sanchez E. Anesthesia recommendations for patients suffering from phocomelia. Orphan Anesthesia. November 2013; https://www.orpha.net/data/patho/Pro/en/Phocomelia-En.pdf.
  2. Bermejo-Sánchez E, Cuevas L, Amar E, Bianca S, Bianchi F, Botto LD, Canfield MA, Castilla EE, Clementi M, Cocchi G, Landau D, Leoncini E, Li Z, Lowry RB, Mastroiacovo P, Mutchinick OM, Rissmann A, Ritvanen A, Scarano G, Siffel C, Szabova E, Martínez-Frías ML. Phocomelia: a worldwide descriptive epidemiologic study in a large series of cases from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and overview of the literature. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. November 2011; 157C(4):305-320.