Rare Rheumatology News

Disease Profile

Spondylocostal dysostosis

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Costovertebral dysplasia; SCDO


Spondylocostal dysostosis is a group of conditions characterized by abnormal development of the bones in the spine and ribs. In the spine, the vertebrae are misshapen and fused. Many people with this condition have an abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis). The ribs may be fused together or missing. These bone malformations lead to short, rigid necks and short midsections. Infants with spondylocostal dysostosis have small, narrow chests that cannot fully expand. This can lead to life-threatening breathing problems. Males with this condition are at an increased risk for inguinal hernia, where the diaphragm is pushed down, causing the abdomen to bulge out. There are several types of spondylocostal dysostosis. These types have similar features and are distinguished by their genetic cause and how they are inherited, autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant .[1][2] Some of the autosomal recessive types of spondylocostal dysostosis are called "Jarcho-Levin syndrome", a term that is more often used as a synonym for a similar condition known as "spondylothoracic dysostosis".[3] Treatment is symptomatic and supportive and may include respiratory support and surgery to correct inguinal hernia and scoliosis.[3]


Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Spondylocostal dysostosis. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.

In-Depth Information

  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) lists the subtypes and associated genes for Spondylocostal dysostosis in a table called Phenotypic Series. Each entry in OMIM includes a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.


  1. Spondylocostal dysostosis. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). February 2011; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/spondylocostal-dysostosis.
  2. SPONDYLOCOSTAL DYSOSTOSIS 1, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE; SCDO1. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). September 2015; https://www.omim.org/entry/277300.
  3. Turnpenny PD, Young E. Spondylocostal Dysostosis, Autosomal Recessive. GeneReviews. January 2013; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8828/.