Rare Rheumatology News

Disease Profile

Split hand foot malformation

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Infancy

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ICD-10

Q71.6 Q72.7

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

SHFM; Ectrodactyly

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases

Summary

Split hand foot malformation (SHFM) is a type of birth defect that consists of missing digits (fingers and/or toes), a deep cleft down the center of the hand or foot, and fusion of remaining digits.[1][2] The severity of this condition varies widely among affected individuals. SHFM is sometimes called ectrodactyly; however, this is a nonspecific term used to describe missing digits.[3] SHFM may occur by itself (isolated) or it may be part of a syndrome with abnormalities in other parts of the body. At least six different forms of isolated SHFM have been described. Each type is associated with a different underlying genetic cause. SHFM1 has been linked to chromosome 7, and SHFM2 is linked to the X chromosome. SHFM3 is caused by a duplication of chromosome 10 at position 10q24. Changes (mutations) in the TP63 gene cause SHFM4. SHFM5 is linked to chromosome 2, and SHFM6 is caused by mutations in the WNT10B gene. SHFM may be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner.

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Oligodactyly
0012165
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Finger syndactyly
0006101
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Absent hand
0004050
Aniridia
Absent iris
0000526
Sensorineural hearing impairment
0000407
Split hand
Claw hand
Claw hand deformities
Claw hands
Claw-hand deformities
Split-hand

[ more ]

0001171

Cause

Split hand foot malformation may occur as an isolated feature or it may be associated with a genetic syndrome. Researchers believe that a large number of mutations can cause split hand foot malformation. A few of which have been identified: FBXW4 and TP63. Most commonly the conditions are passed through families in an autosomal dominant fashion with reduced penetrance. In autosomal dominant inheritance an affected parent would have a 1 in 2 or 50% chance with each pregnancy of passing the genetic defect to his/her offspring. In conditions with “reduced penetrance” a person who inherits the underlying genetic defect, may never develop the condition.[2]

More rarely other forms of inheritance have been reported (e.g., autosomal-recessive, X-linked, chromosome deletions, chromosome duplications).[2]

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • Orphanet lists international laboratories offering diagnostic testing for this condition.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) lists the subtypes and associated genes for Split hand foot malformation in a table called Phenotypic Series. Each entry in OMIM includes a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Split hand foot malformation. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Bianchi DW, Crombleholme T, D’Alton ME. Ectrodactyly. In: Bianchi DW et al.,. Fetology. Philadelphia, PA: McGraw-Hill; 2000;
  2. Duijf P, van Bokhoven H, Brunner HG. Pathogenesis of split-hand/split-foot malformation. Human Molecular Genetics. 2003;
  3. Elliott AM, Evans JA, Chudley AE. Split hand foot malformation. Clinical Genetics. December 2005; 68(6):501-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16283879. Accessed 4/14/2011.
  4. Ectrodactyly. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. 2004; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=225300. Accessed 7/23/2009.

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